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Books Book Reviews

Hacking Vim 7.2 246

briancarper writes "Vim is an open-source text editor with a power and flexibility matched only by the steepness of its learning curve. As the author of this book states, 'Vim Can Do Everything' but configuring it to do so is sometimes daunting. Hacking Vim 7.2 aims to help the average Vimmer get the most out of customizing Vim, for fun and productivity." Read on for the rest of briancarper's review.
Hacking Vim 7.2
author Kim Schulz
pages 244
publisher Packt Publishing
rating 8
reviewer briancarper
ISBN 1849510504
summary Customizing and scripting Vim 7.2
Vim has an overwhelming number of features. Its built-in help system and documentation are comprehensive and easy to navigate once you know what you're looking for, but knowing where to start is sometimes very difficult. The best you can hope for in a book is a broad outline to point the way toward features that you didn't know much about. Hacking Vim 7.2 achieves this goal.

No topic is covered in nearly the depth you'll find in the official documentation (or even on the Vim Wiki), but every topic is covered in enough detail to let you know that a feature exists and to point you in the right direction to begin using it. Most helpfully, throughout the book are references to things to look up in Vim's help system, as well as links to various relevant scripts.

This is not a book for an absolute Vim beginner; some familiarity with Vim is assumed. And for a Vim fanatic, much of the material may be common knowledge for you already. But any seasoned Vimmer will tell you that there are always things to learn about this editor, and I think nearly everyone will learn something from this book. For someone who uses Vim and is looking to master it, this book is a great starting point, though you'll still need to dive into the official reference material to really cement your knowledge.

The book starts on an odd note. Chapter 1 is a history of vi and the various vi clones released over the past couple decades. This information is interesting trivia and serves to give credit to programmers who paved the road to Vim, but it doesn't really help anyone "hack Vim" in any way. The book probably could've done without this chapter.

Chapter 2 deals with customizing the overall look and feel of Vim. How and where to edit vimrc is covered, with brief attention given to cross-platform issues. It covers the basics (changing font faces and colors, customizing menus and toolbars), as well as pointing out some more obscure settings, like highlighting the cursor row and column (creating a kind of "cursor crosshair"), and using the match feature to highlight multiple search terms at once. This chapter is a good foundation for later chapters and a good introduction for anyone who has never edited their own vimrc.

Chapter 3 is about text navigation. Sadly, the book doesn't go into as much detail on movement commands as I would've liked. The ability to move around and manipulate text quickly in Normal Mode by combining counts and motions/operators is one of Vim's most unique and powerful features, but it only gets a few paragraphs here.

There are some interesting key mappings provided, for example how to move up and down between "virtual" lines when lines are soft-wrapped. Search is covered briefly, both plain text search and multi-file search via vimgrep, but there's little information about Vim's powerful regular expressions, which I thought was a shame. Marks are discussed, both normal "hidden" marks as well as visible "signs", the latter being a feature I've never used.

Chapter 4 is about "production boosters" and covers a wide variety of topics. Much of the chapter is devoted to "templates" and "snippets", which allow you to build skeletons of commonly-used source code (with fill-in-the-blanks markers) that can be re-used when editing new files. A system for using these templates is built from scratch using Vim script, providing a clever and useful example of scripting in action.

Auto-completion is covered in a lot of detail. Some custom key mappings are provided to help make "omni-completion" in Vim a bit easier to invoke. This chapter also very thoroughly covers Vim's multiple copy/paste registers and how they work. Recording and using macros, pointed out as one of Vim's more overlooked features, gets a good, lengthy example.

"Undo branching" in Vim is wonderful, but difficult to understand. Chapter 4 gives a simple, step-by-step example of why it's useful and how it works. This chapter also briefly discusses folding, vimdiff, netrw (editing files remotely via SSH and other protocols), and ctags. There's lots of good stuff in this chapter and you're almost certain to learn something useful.

Chapter 5 covers text formatting, both using built-in Vim commands and by piping text through external tools like par and tidy. A lot of space is devoted to using Vim to prettify plaintext, for example by centering titles on a line, adding ASCII-art dashes for headers and making bulleted lists. If you edit plaintext in Vim often, this is probably a great chapter, but I didn't find much use for most of it.

For programmers, the book discusses the different indentation styles available in Vim and very briefly shows how to write your own indentation functions, and how to indent and reformat blocks or whole files of code all at once. "Paste mode" also gets a passing mention. Personally I think a programmer reading this book would've benefited from much more detail about Vim's myriad indentation and text-wrapping options and how they work together, as this can be one of the most frustrating parts of Vim to configure correctly.

I had high hopes for Chapter 6 and 7, which deal with Vim scripting, but I was largely disappointed. Chapter 6 deals with scripting basics, and is essentially a beginner's language tutorial. It explains which variable types exist in Vim script, how if/then/else works, how for- and while-loops work, how function parameters operate, and so on, but anyone who knows a modern scripting language will learn these things quickly without much effort. There's also some basic information about how to write a syntax-highlighting script from scratch, but there's not really enough information to allow you write one for a real programming language.

Chapter 7 is supposed to be about "extended scripting" topics, but serves largely as a style guide. It details how to structure a script to check for compiled-in features and Vim version number. This chapter touches briefly on using SID and PLUG to namespace functions, but the explanation and example left me puzzled. How to use the debugger and how to make Vimballs are both explored, and the book points out that you can use Perl, Python and Ruby to script Vim without going into much detail or giving solid examples.

If you're looking for any advancing information on writing your own functions in Vim script, you're mostly out of luck here. Previous chapters in the book do include some useful and practical functions, but those functions are never really taken apart or explained in detail.

Finally there are two appendices, one of which lists a bunch of games you can play in Vim (again this could've been left out of the book and I wouldn't have missed it), as well as examples of using Vim as a mail, chat, and Twitter client. There's also a feature-by-feature comparison of Vim to MS Visual Studio, showing that many of Visual Studio's abilities can be provided in Vim given the proper scripts. I thought it was an interesting demonstration that Vim really can do everything, just in case the reader had any doubts at this point. The last appendix is a style guide for keeping your vimrc clean, mostly via common sense and splitting your configuration into multiple files.

Overall, stylistically the book is a bit dry and humorless, but it's easy enough to read and it gets its information across clearly. There were a few typos and editing errors, including a few rather glaring typos in some code examples, but overall the author seems extremely knowledgeable about Vim. The best parts of the book are where the author says "this was useful to me personally, so here's how I do X". This book is clearly written by someone who uses Vim all the time, and most of the information provided is practical and immediately usable.

I do feel the book should've gone into more detail in many areas. At 244 pages, the book is short and gives a rather shallow view of many of Vim's features. But the book hits all the right notes and leaves few features entirely unexplored.

I'd recommend this book to any person who uses Vim and wants to explore features they may have been missing. There's nothing in this book you won't find in Vim's built-in documentation, but this book lays everything out in an easy-to-read format, and should serve as a good starting point to customizing and mastering Vim.

You can purchase Hacking Vim 7.2 from amazon.com. Slashdot welcomes readers' book reviews -- to see your own review here, read the book review guidelines, then visit the submission page.


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Hacking Vim 7.2

Comments Filter:
  • Re:but... (Score:5, Informative)

    by c++0xFF ( 1758032 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @02:33PM (#32159560)

    I've always pronounced it with vim and vigor. That seems to help.

  • Re:but... (Score:5, Informative)

    by swanzilla ( 1458281 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @02:45PM (#32159748) Homepage
    Vim stemmed from vi, which was never pronounced "six", so mostly, you are barking up the wrong tree. Vim is loosely "Vi IMproved" and the "i" sound is a soft "i" by convention.
  • by Anonymous Coward on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:00PM (#32159962)
  • Re:Bloatware? (Score:3, Informative)

    by beleriand ( 22608 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:06PM (#32160062)

    If you ever look at :version, it spits out this huge list of features, each with a "+/-" in front.

    I suppose when you build your own custom verion, there is a way that you can configure your version to leave most of those features out.

    In fact debian seems to have done just that, they ship "vim.tiny" in the base install with just 640k, which should be enough for everyone.

  • by blair1q ( 305137 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:11PM (#32160140) Journal

    But if you really must waste time with a mouse to feel superior, you can just run vim as gvim.

  • by Chad Birch ( 1222564 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:12PM (#32160172)
    Well, I'm not sure that I believe that you actually use OpenOffice to edit code, but here's my standard example of something I can do much faster in vim than people can in other editors:

    Imagine you have the following line of code:

    $welcome_message = "Welcome to my site!"; // message displayed at the top of the main page

    How would you go about changing the welcome message?

    Most people I know would use a combination of Home, End, Backspace, Shift, and the arrow keys to select or delete the string, and then type in a new welcome message. Some would reach over to grab the mouse and select the string, then type over it. In vim, I just need to get my cursor between the quote marks (and there are many ways to do this, personally I'd probably use a quick find and then a couple pushes of w or e). Once anywhere inside the quotes, I just type ci" (a 3-part command, change inside ") and it erases everything inside the quotes and puts me into insert mode. I can easily do this faster than your hand can even get to your mouse.

    Yes, vim is hard to learn, and it's frustrating for quite a while. But once you start actually understanding the "language" of its commands and how they fit together, you'll wonder how you ever used anything else.
  • by Clueless Moron ( 548336 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:13PM (#32160186)

    This is one of my pet peeves.

    A steep learning curve refers to something that is quickly learned, as the curve that represents knowledge over time would indeed be steep in that case.

    Something difficult would have a shallow learning curve, not a steep one.

    I think usually when people talk about learning curves, the horizontal axis represents knowledge and the vertical axis is your investment to acquire that knowledge.

    Is there some established convention that contradicts this?

    The problem is that in mathematics, the independent variable normally goes on the X axis (horizontal). In the case of learning, "effort" is the independent variable since "knowledge acquired" depends on "effort" and not the other way around. By that model a steep learning curve is one where a little bit of effort gains you a lot of knowledge. Unfortunately this doesn't match the classic usage of the phrase.

    And that's why I don't use that phrase. Instead I say things like "python has a gentle learning curve" or "emacs has a tough learning curve"

  • Re:Yes, but... (Score:2, Informative)

    by Anomalyst ( 742352 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:25PM (#32160386)


    for proper results

  • by Anonymous Coward on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:31PM (#32160466)

    Not exactly what you're looking for, but it solves the same problem:


    highlight OverLength ctermbg=red ctermfg=white guibg=#592929
    match OverLength /\%81v.\+/

  • by u17 ( 1730558 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:34PM (#32160498)
    Wow, that's useful. I normally do: f"ldt" (find", l: move one right, delete 'till ")
  • by Clueless Moron ( 548336 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @03:42PM (#32160616)

    My main peeve with vim is when it goes into "recording mode" or whatever that nonsense is, when I try to ":q" and hit something by mistake and the screen splits. I still don't know what I did wrong. And that vim always wants to go back to the last place in the file you edited, even if you edited the file ten years ago and really want to start at the top. The only way I found around that one is to make the .viminfo file chmod 000 so it can't save status.

    Recording mode is your friend. It means you hit "q" followed by some letter. It's a macro recorder. Let's say you want to do some complicated operation on a number of lines. Type "qq" to start recording into "q" and do the commands in a generalized fashion on one line, making sure that at the end you end up with the cursor on the next line. Type "q" to stop recording. Now type "@q" to execute those commands again, and the current line should get fixed. Or type "20@q" to do it 20 times. You get the idea.

    Splitting the windows is done with the ^W commands. ^Ws splits horizontally, ^Wv vertically. Do ^Wq to quite a split window. Or do ^Wo to make the current window the "o"nly window.

    I'm a bit puzzled about why you don't like vi remembering where you last edited. If you want to go to the start of the file, just type "1G".

  • Re:um... (Score:2, Informative)

    by ignavusinfo ( 883331 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @04:08PM (#32160940) Journal

    Or the mythical sages of Emacs configuration left their caves once and enlightened us all.

    I yet to see a single Emacs user who has written the .init.el her/himself - not grabbed some decade old copy off the net.

    It's probably just me, but these statements seem contradictory.

    Seriously, emacs users are actually a really helpful bunch, check out the emacs wiki [emacswiki.org] for instance. Or consider the amount of effort that's gone into making the customization system (M-x customize) easy for both end users to use and emacs-lisp developers to incorporate into their extensions. Or the quality (and price!) of the Emacs manual, [gnu.org] Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp [gnu.org], or Emacs Lisp Reference Manual. [gnu.org]

    Emacs users might be perceived as elitist or something, but the feeling I've always had is that it's a community that strives to be welcoming and not holier-than-thou.

  • Re:but... (Score:3, Informative)

    by smithberry ( 714364 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @04:08PM (#32160944) Homepage Journal
    The Vim documentation tells us "Vim is pronounced as one word, like Jim, not vi-ai-em." So I guess it sounds like Jim. http://vimdoc.sourceforge.net/htmldoc/intro.html [sourceforge.net]
  • by mario_grgic ( 515333 ) on Monday May 10, 2010 @04:54PM (#32161636)
    That method is fine too and it works in plain old vi. You only save one keystroke really: instead of your f"ldt" (i.e. 6 keystrokes), you type f"ci" (i.e. 5 keystrokes) :D.

    However, ci" (or ci{ etc) are most useful when you are inside the text object. Then you don't have to find or move to the boundaries of the text object to modify its contents. This is even more useful for XML tags, e.g.

          line 1
          line 2
          line 3

    If your cursor is in line 1 or line 2 etc, you can type dit (delete innner tag) and delete everything between <tag> and </tag>


    if (condition) {
          line 1
          line 2 ...

    if your cursor is anywhere in the {} block (line1, 2 etc) the command ci{ will delete all lines between { and } and put you in insert mode. Very useful.

    For a complete list of all supported text objects type :h object

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