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Book Reviews

Book Review: Liars and Outliers 68

First time accepted submitter benrothke writes "It is said that the song Wipe Out launched a generation of drummers. In the world of information security, the classic Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C by Bruce Schneier may have been the book that launched a generation of new cryptographers. Schneier's latest work of art is Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive. For those that are looking for a follow-up to Applied Cryptography, this it is not. In fact, it is hard to classify this as an information security title and in fact the book is marked for the current affairs/sociology section. Whatever section this book ultimately falls in, the reader will find that Schneier is one of the most original thinkers around." Keep reading for the rest of Ben's review.
Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive
author Bruce Schneier
pages 384
publisher Wiley
rating 10/10
reviewer Ben Rothke
ISBN 978-1118143308
summary Brilliant book on trust and society, and it complex interrelation
In Applied Cryptography Schneier dealt with the pristine world of mathematical cryptography where aspects of pure mathematics could be demonstrably proven. For example, non-repudiation is absolutely provable.

In Liars and Outliers, Schneier moves from the pristine world of mathematics into the muddy world of human trust. Non-repudiation is no longer an absolute in a world where a Windows kernel can be compromised and end-users can be victims of social engineering.

The book addresses the fundamental question of how does society function when you cant trust everyone. Schneier notes that nothing in society works without trust. Its the foundation of communities, commerce, democracy, in truth — everything. And Schneier deals extensively with social and moral pressures that effect trust.

Liars and Outliers is very similar to books by Umberto Eco, that have a Renaissance feel to them; bringing myriad and diverse topics together. Schneier does this here and intertwines topics such as game theory, evolution, surveillance, existentialism and much more. Schneier's brilliance is that he is able to connect seemingly disparate dots around information security and society, and show how they are in truth tightly coupled.

In the book, Schneier makes note of those that don't follow the rules. He calls these people defectors, and these are the liars and outliers of the book. The book notes that everything is a trade-off, and these defectors are the ones that try to break the rules.

An overall theme of the book, in which Schneier touches and references sociology, psychology, economics, criminology, anthropology, game theory and much more, is that society can't function without trust. He writes that in our complex interconnect and global society, that we need a lot of trust.

Schneier makes frequent reference to Dunbar's number, which he first references in chapter 2. Dunbars number was first proposed by British anthropologist Robin Dunbar and is a theoretical cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships. It is generally in the area of 150. So when someone sees a person with 3,000 Facebook friends, something is clearly amiss.

In chapter 9 on institutional pressures, Schneier takes a very broad look at threats facing society today. One of the biggest perceived threats we have today is terrorism, and the book astutely notes that we can never ensure perfect security against terrorism.

If Schneier had his way, the TSA budget would be measured in the millions, not billions of dollars. He incisively observes that all the talk of terrorism as an existential threat to society is utter nonsense. As long as terrorism is rare enough (which it is), and most people survive (which they do), society will survive. He writes that while that observation is true, it is not politically viable for our leaders to come out and say that.

While the book is heavy on the people focus, Schneier also acknowledges that sometimes and for some people, the incentives to commit crimes are worth the risk. To deal with those, that is where security technologies come into play.

An interesting observation made in chapter 10 around technology is that sometimes the technological changes have absolutely nothing to do with the societal dilemma being secured. For example, he notes that between the ubiquity of keyboards and the tendency for teachers to focus on standardized tests, cursive is no longer being taught that much in schools. The result is that signatures are more likely to be either printed text is an illegible scrawl; making them easier to forge; which in turns creates new security risks.

In the book Schneier makes scores of astute observations on how society functions around security. He notes in chapter 16 that we are currently in a period of history where technology is changing faster than it ever has. The worry is that if technology changes too fast, the attackers will be able to innovate so much faster than society can that the imbalance become even greater; with failures that negatively affect society.

In many of the examples in the book, Schneier paints a dark picture given the advantage that the attackers and defectors have. But he also notes that we are in a period of history where the ability for large-scale cooperation is greater than it has ever been before. On that topic, he refers to the book The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler where he writes that the Internet can and has enabled cooperation on a scale never before seen. And that politics, backed by science, is ready to embrace this new cooperation.

On the lighter side, in chapter 17, Schneier notes that Mussolini didn't make the trains run on time; he just made it illegal to complain about them.

Schneier notes at the end of the book that its lesson isn't that defectors will inevitably ruin everything for everyone. Rather that we as a society need to manage societal pressure to ensure that they don't.

Liars and Outliers is an absolutely fascinating and groundbreaking book. In this election year where the candidates attempt to make sweeping simplistic promises to fix complex problems, Schneier simply answers that in our complex society, there are no simple answers.

In Applied Cryptography Bruce Schneier demonstrated he was quite the smart guy. In Liars and Outliers, he shows he is even smarter than most of us first thought.

Ben Rothke is the author of Computer Security: 20 Things Every Employee Should Know.

You can purchase Liars and Outliers: Enabling the Trust that Society Needs to Thrive from Slashdot welcomes readers' book reviews -- to see your own review here, read the book review guidelines, then visit the submission page.
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Book Review: Liars and Outliers

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  • by roeguard ( 1113267 ) on Wednesday February 22, 2012 @05:56PM (#39130307)

    While Trust definitely lowers the cost of transactions between people/entities, I think that having a small amount of defectors is actually beneficial on a macro level. Without a couple people willing to take advantage of process flaws, it would be very easy for society to become stagnant and complacent.

    Doesn't mean we shouldn't crush those defectors to dust when we find them, though.

  • Slower not faster (Score:5, Insightful)

    by vlm ( 69642 ) on Wednesday February 22, 2012 @06:11PM (#39130459)

    In the book Schneier makes scores of astute observations on how society functions around security. He notes in chapter 16 that we are currently in a period of history where technology is changing faster than it ever has. The worry is that if technology changes too fast, the attackers will be able to innovate so much faster than society can

    Historically haven't attackers always innovated slower at least on the net? I was on the net for years before the invention of spam around '93 or so. Most "attacks" seem to be the same old social con artist crimes, or finding dumb coding mistakes... but for those in the biz, those dumb mistakes are defined as dumb, not insightful. A buffer overflow is freaking magic to a noob, but to a guy who knows C its a parlor trick.

    Technologically enhanced stupidity on the victim side seems to be a bigger issue than technologically enhanced criminality on the attacker side.

    In 20 years on the net, I've seen the victims get stupider, but I haven't seen the attackers get smarter or dumber. You'd think the same demographic pressure would apply to each, but...

  • by Anonymous Coward on Wednesday February 22, 2012 @06:25PM (#39130617)

    You're looking at it from the wrong perspective. "Attackers", manipulators, and conmen have always and will always be trying the best schemes they can find. When they find one to be profitable, they don't NEED to move on until the scheme has been foiled and its chances of success drop to the point where it's more profitable to move on to a new scheme than to continue entertaining an existing, [semi-]successful one.

    Find an easy way to make money, and you will find the place swarming with conmen, abusers, attackers, manipulators, and their ilk. This thing surges until the bubble bursts or gets regulated into oblivion. This doesn't kill the bug, it just moves it to a new home. When one of the bugs discovers there's an easy way to make a buck somewhere else, expect the infestation to grow until it's noticeable by you, annoying to you, and finally, unavoidable to you.

  • by PopeRatzo ( 965947 ) on Wednesday February 22, 2012 @08:03PM (#39131625) Journal

    Haters gonna hate on book reviews (including me) but keep 'em coming, brothski!

    It's pretty good, as short reviews of books on technical subjects go. As someone who has analyzed texts my entire professional career, he has clearly reviewed books before, his user name aside.

    I do enjoy the book reviews here on Slashdot. I've gotten some pretty good reads and reference books.

    I'd like to see more reviews by lots of different people. Reviews of things besides books, too. I think there are a lot of Slashdot readers who have interesting and informative perspectives. RogueyWon's game reviews, for example, are as good as any I've found on the Internet.

Competence, like truth, beauty, and contact lenses, is in the eye of the beholder. -- Dr. Laurence J. Peter